Dates and times, like character encoding, are tricky to get right. In real life the concept of time is not something we usually think about much (except when we skipped breakfast this morning and it’s still only 10:30) but once you start storing and manipulating dates and times with computers you begin to run into all sorts of complications like time zones and durations and leap seconds and when is it really the ‘start of the day’ anyway?

Probably the biggest problems with dates come from time zones. Time zones are more complicated than they first appear. They are not just an offset in hours (or half hours) from UTC but also a set of rules about when and if daylight saving time comes into effect.

A good date and time library like Joda-Time or the new java.time API can make things easier but regardless of the tools being used I have found a few simple rules can make working with dates and times a bit more sane and save you having to take your site down for maintenance when summer time rolls around.

Keep your server’s clock in UTC

I have never found it useful to run a server in a time zone other than UTC. When you build a new server make sure one of the first things you do is set the system clock to UTC (remember to reboot or restart your system log so it picks up on the change). This will make inspecting logs so much easier as you won’t need to wonder whether the timestamp in the log entry is in UTC or whatever time zone your server is in or whether it was summer time when the log was written. It will also help reason about when cron jobs will actually run.

Keep your database in UTC

Just like the server itself, make sure your database is running in UTC. Many databases will use the system time zone by default so if the server it’s on is in UTC there’s a good chance the database is too but it can be helpful to explicitly set it.

Keep your JVM in UTC

Java has a default time zone it uses for date operations that don’t specify one. So does Joda-Time. You can set the  user.timezone system property or set it directly using  TimeZone.setDefault(timeZone). I tend to set it during application startup with something like this (also sets Joda-Time default):

Store and work with dates in UTC

Joda-Time may help you work with time zones but for many applications you don’t really care about a time zone until it comes time to either accept data from or present data to the user. Until that time comes keep your dates in UTC. Keep them in UTC for as long as you can and whatever you do, unless you must record the time zone of a date, store it as UTC in your database.

You may have spotted a theme; keeping your dates in UTC for as long as possible can really help you to reason about what your code will do and when it will do it. If you only work with dates internally and don’t need to present a localised date to a user then you can just keep everything in UTC all the time and never worry about summer time again.

Start date is inclusive, end date is exclusive

Once you stick to this rule, date ranges become so much easier to work with. For example, if I were to specify ‘this week’, the start date would be 2015-01-04T00:00:00Z and the end date would be 2015-01-11T00:00:00Z. You will have no trouble comparing instants to a date range if you follow this rule.

For some reason this seems to be a tricky concept for non-programmers to grasp so you will no doubt have to put up with requirements being specified using times like 23:59:59.

Use ISO 8601

Finally, where possible stick to the ISO 8601 formats for representing dates and times. Like all the above rules this one helps eliminate ambiguities and inconsistencies.


For a long time now the excellent Joda-Time library has been the de facto date and time API for Java. Like SLF4J or Guava it is one of those dependencies that I seem to add by default to any new project but since the release of Java 8 users are asked to migrate to the new java.time API. Finally Java has a date and time API it doesn’t need to be ashamed of.

This new API is heavily influenced by the good design decisions of Joda-Time and much of its usage is similar but with years of writing Joda-Time code under my fingers I still find myself checking the new Javadoc from time to time for the subtle differences.

Here is a short list of some common date/time tasks using the new API. Interoperability with the old Date class will often be a requirement for the near future so included are a couple of examples converting from java.util.Date and java.sql.Date to java.time.

You can drop Joda-Time from your Scala apps running on Java 8, too although the conflict with Scala’s reserved word with means backticks are sometimes required.



Here’s another interesting boat that I’ve noticed moored outside my flat a few times. It’s the Thames Vitality, one of two oxygenation barges built for Thames Water by McTay Marine.

The Thames’s oxygen levels can plummet after heavy rain when storm pipes overflow and these boats are used to replenish oxygen levels in the river. This process helps to prevent many fish deaths but the long term solution is to replace the old Victorian system with one that doesn’t allow sewage to drain into the river.

JIRA Agile has come a long way from the days of the GreenHopper plugin. It’s now pretty well integrated into JIRA and I’ve found it great for running an Agile workflow.

JIRA Agile supports both Scrum and Kanban boards so you can manage your tickets using whichever methodology you prefer but what if different parts of your team want or need to work in different ways? With JIRA Agile you can have multiple boards so tickets flow through different teams in different ways.

Maybe your developers are using Scrum with week long sprints. They want a standard Scrum board where they can take tickets from the To Do column, move them into In Progress when work starts and then to Done when complete.

But perhaps weekly sprints don’t really suit the planning workflow of your product team. They would prefer to use a Kanban approach of managing their work in progress.

Ideally we want to be able to create tickets on the product team’s board and move them into the developers’ board when they are at a suitable stage of readiness. By mapping statuses you can have a kind of combined Kanban/Scrum process.

Product Board

This is a Kanban board with 5 columns: Backlog, Requirements, Ready for development, Test and Ready for release. Each column is mapped to the following respective Statuses: IDEA, REQUIREMENTS, TO DO, RESOLVED and CLOSED. The IN PROGRESS status is left unmapped so tickets in this state will not show up on the board.

The product team can work on tickets in the Backlog and Requirements phases before moving them to the Ready for development column which will cause them to show up in the Development Scrum board (as we will see).

Once the developers have completed a ticket it can be moved into the RESOLVED state and it will then reappear on the Product board in the Test column. When the product owner is happy that the requirements have been met it can be moved to the Ready for release column.

Development Board

This is a Scrum board with the standard three columns: To Do, In Progress and Done. Some tickets may not need to be sent back to product for review and can be closed directly so the Done column has both RESOLVED and CLOSED statuses.

Scrum Board
Scrum development board

When planning a sprint, the Development board will only show those tickets with a status of TO DO in the backlog. Tickets that are still being prepared by the product team (IDEA and REQUIREMENTS) are left unmapped so won’t show up until they are ready to be scheduled into a sprint. Once a ticket is moved into the RESOLVED state it will reappear on the Product board.

By combining Scrum and Kanban boards you can create a hybrid workflow that better suits the needs of the people actually working on the tickets. You don’t need to force everyone into a single way of working.

In a previous post I showed a way to calculate the total distance of a GPX track using Scala’s foldLeft. Continuing my current hobby of exploring the new Java 8 lambdas and streams API I thought I would see how the functional approach translated to Java.

To recap, a GPX track is just a sequence of latitude, longitude pairs. The first problem is that Java doesn’t have Scala’s handy tuples so we need a custom class to represent a point.

My first thought was to use the reduce method on the Stream interface but given the slightly more complicated requirement to keep track of both the total distance and the previous point I ended up implementing a custom Collector. From the Javadoc a Collector is:

A mutable reduction operation that accumulates input elements into a mutable result container, optionally transforming the accumulated result into a final representation after all input elements have been processed. Reduction operations can be performed either sequentially or in parallel.

The Collector interface has three type parameters: T is the type of input elements to the reduction operation, A is the mutable accumulation type of the reduction operation and R is the result type of the reduction operation.

In our case, the input elements are Points and the result type is a Double (distance in miles). We just need a mutable accumulation type to keep track of the total distance and the last point in the track. Here it is:

So we have an input type and an accumulation type. Now we can implement the Collector which uses the haversine formula to calculate great circle distance between each point in the track and put it all together:

So given that we need to implement a Point class and a custom Collector the end result isn’t quite as concise as Scala but it’s still a nice functional way of processing the list. Unfortunately we can’t take advantage of parallel streams as the points have to be processed in order. The more I use Java 8’s new streams and lambdas the more I like them and Collectors are a nice way of customising reduction.